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6 Types of Facial Trauma

A face is a complex bone composition where many bones are found deeper within the facial structure. It is located near the brain and central nervous system responsible for expressions, sensations, and eye movements. Therefore, seek medical help immediately if you are suffering from any facial injuries. A complex fracture can cause irreversible damages and life-threatening complications. Fractures can damage the cranial nerves, depending upon the type and location of the fracture. 

Here are the six types of facial traumas:

Nasal fracture (Broken nose)

Nasal bone fracture is one of the common facial fractures. The nasal bone is made of two thin bones. Therefore, even a slight force can break the delicate structure of thin nasal bones. The common symptoms may include swelling, difficulty in breathing, nose-bleeds, and bruising in the area, or the feeling of soreness or deformity of the nose.

Frontal fracture (Forehead)

The frontal bone is the fundamental bone in the forehead area. A high-impact injury on the head can lead to a frontal bone or sinuses floor fracture. It occurs in the middle of the forehead because the bones are the thinnest in the area. The fracture can cause the forehead to appear inverted (pushed inward). It can also lead to the skull or neurological trauma. Symptoms may include eye injuries, sinus pain leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid.

Zygomaticomaxillary fracture (Broken cheekbone/ upper jaw)

The zygomas (cheekbones) are bonded at several points to the upper jaw (maxilla) and the bones of the skull. Fracture in the cheekbones can also involve breaks in other nearby facial bones. The symptoms of broken cheekbone can include flatness of the cheek, pain in jaw movement, eyesight problems, and altered sensation underneath the eye.

Orbital fracture (Eye socket)

Orbital fractures involve the bones of the eye socket. Symptoms can include a black eye, bleeding in the eye’s white area, blurriness/ decreased sight, numbness, and swelling in the surrounding area. Following are three main types of orbital fractures:

  • Orbital rim fracture: The surface rim is the thickest part of the eye socket. Many injuries, such as damage to the optic nerve, can accompany the orbital rim fracture.
  • Blowout fracture: During a blowout fracture, a crack is formed in the thin bone at the lower part of the eye socket. It can lead to difficulty in the eyeball’s movement.
  • Direct orbital floor fracture: Here, the rim fracture extends to the lower socket. 

Maxillary/ Le fort fracture (Midface)

A mid-face fracture involves the fracture of the pterygoid. Depending upon the type, the trauma can either extend above the upper jaw or the cheeks area or can spread across the bridge of the nose and eye-surrounding bones.

Mandible (lower jaw)

The lower jaw keeps the lower teeth in place and helps in chewing or talking. Lower jaw fractures can negatively affect the movement and functioning of the lower jaw and surrounding area. Symptoms may include pain, numbness, bruising, swelling along the jaw, or missing/ loose teeth in the mouth.

About Premier Oral Surgery

If you are looking for a facial trauma specialist, Premier Oral Surgery is the perfect one-stop solution for you. We offer the best comprehensive oral and maxillofacial surgery services. We hold extensive specialization in various oral surgeries, including implant placement, bone grafts, cone beam ct scan, and wisdom teeth removal. To book an appointment, you can call us at 203-939-9390 or write to us at

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